The invisible carbon: an early indication of ecosystem change!

The invisible carbon: an early indication of ecosystem change!

Streams are sensitive sentinels for environmental change by their integration of processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Upland headwater streams in the north Swedish tundra show seasonally exceptional high concentrations of uncolored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and high carbon dioxide concentrations.

Nutrient availability along two arctic successional gradients

Nutrient availability along two arctic successional gradients

Understanding how plant succession is influenced by climate warming is a key issue for understanding how arctic landscapes will change in the future. At high latitudes, low temperature drives disturbance and the consequent primary succession (e.g., cryoturbation, glacier advance and retreat).

LOREX

LOREX

The Limnology and Oceanography Research Exchange (LOREX) is a formal training and professional development program in international research collaboration in the aquatic sciences offered by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO).

Teatime4science

Emily Goldstein Museum

Emily Goldstein Museum

Teatime4science

Project summary

The decay of organic material, or decomposition, is a critical process for life. While plant material decomposes, it loses weight, releases nutrients and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Changes in climate and decomposition potentially reinforce each other; With global warming, decomposition increases, leading to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, which in turn accelerates global warming. These feedbacks substantially influence our future climate. However, the current climate models lack sufficient measured data to accurately include feedbacks between decomposition and climate. Solving this requires a new approach and a huge quantity of data. A recently developed method that uses tea bags as test kits is such an approach. By involving citizen scientists, decomposition rates will be measured at a previously unattainable scale and resolution, within a relatively short time. This will break new ground in our understanding of climate effects on decomposition. We will test the effects of changed climate conditions by burying tea worldwide alongside climate manipulation experiments (with open top chambers and rain shelters). We further calibrate the method and measure decomposition under a large variety of environmental conditions in the laboratory. The tea time for science project will thus compile a global soil map of decomposition, and perform the most rigorous test of the relation between climate factors and decay rates using models with increased accuracy

Project website

www.teatime4science.org

Project Dates: 2015 - 2019

Funding Organisations

Vetenskapsrådet

Collaborators

Mariet Hefting, Utrecht University
Taru Sandén, Department for Soil Health and Plant Nutrition at the Austrian Agency for Health and Food
Safety (AGES)
Joost Keuskamp, Biont Research

Changing ice-cover regimes in a warmer climate: Effects on northern aquatic ecosystems

Ice Sampling at Lake Almberga

Ice Sampling at Lake Almberga

Changing ice-cover regimes in a warmer climate: Effects on northern aquatic ecosystems

Project summary

The goal of this project is to assess the effects of changing ice-cover regimes on aquatic primary production and carbon metabolism in northern freshwater and brackish water coastal ecosystems. Northern aquatic ecosystems are seasonally variable due to long, cold and dark ice-covered winters as well as 24-hour sunlight during summer. A warmer climate has effects on the extensions and magnitudes of snow- and ice-cover, with shorter duration of ice-cover expected for northern aquatic ecosystems. The ice-cover is important for carbon accumulation (CO2 and CH4), aquatic-atmosphere gas exchange and a number of biological processes. Hence, a changing ice-cover regime will have important implications for the function of northern aquatic ecosystems and for the role of these systems in the global carbon cycle.

Project Dates: 2017 - 2020

Funding Organisations

Formas
EcoChange

Collaborators

Erin Hotchkiss, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Rolf Vinebrooke, University of Alberta

Benthic and pelagic production in coastal ecosystems of the northern Baltic Sea

Coastal Benthic Algae

Coastal Benthic Algae

Benthic and pelagic production in coastal ecosystems of the northern Baltic Sea

Project Summary

The northern basins of the Baltic Sea are relatively shallow systems, implying that coastal processes can be of great significance to this area. It is likely that benthic primary production is an important part of the basal production in coastal ecosystems, because of high nutrient concentrations in the sediments and available sunlight. Coastal habitats are also important recruitment areas for most fish species. However, colored organic matter, which is transported into the marine system via rivers, can potentially shift the basal production from benthic and autotrophic to pelagic and heterotrophic. Thus, colored organic matter is likely a key factor influencing the ecosystem function in the northern Baltic Sea. In this project we are studying benthic and pelagic primary production and bacterial production in northern Baltic Sea coastal zones with varying input of colored organic matter. Furthermore, we are aiming at quantifying the importance of the different production modes to the production of higher trophic levels, e.g. fish. The project is part of the strategic research program ECOCHANGE.

Project Dates: 2014 - 2020

Funding Organization

EcoChange

Collaborators

Agneta Andersson, Umeå University
Pär Byström, Umeå University

ALTER - Abisko Long-Term Ecological Research

DSCF2890.jpg

ALTER - Abisko Long-Term Ecological Research

Project Summary

The arctic region does not only provide us with a unique biodiversity; one of its most important services is storing in its soils about twice the amount of carbon that is currently contained in our atmosphere. With climate change, however, the Arctic changes dramatically, particularly in terms of vegetation composition. An important way in which plants affect carbon storage is by their interactions with symbiotic soil fungi – mycorrhiza –, as they have a great ability to store carbon belowground, although the way in which they do this depends on the plant species. Changes in vegetation composition therefore will also determine which types of fungi can be found in the landscape.

To study how changed soil fungal communities affect carbon storage, our international research collective, will establish a long-term field experiment in the alpine tundra close to Abisko. In this experiment we will remove fungal types from the soil by removing their symbiotic plant species. We will monitor the gradual changes in fungal community and various processes affecting soil carbon storage in the short- and long-term. This will provide a novel and holistic understanding about the role of vegetation change in carbon storage in the Arctic.


A long-term collaboration

Ecology and global change related research is in need of long-term field (>10 years) experiments in order to answer some of the relevant questions in the field. However, most funding only cover 1-3, sometimes 5 years of research and employment at the early career stage is limited to only a few years. Long-term field studies are therefore hard to fund - especially for early career scientists. Besides from our scientific questions our special collaboration pose a new solution to how young scientists can take matter into their own hands in order to become independent in a research field where long-term studies are highly needed. 


Funding 

Konung Carl XVI Gustafs 50-årsfond (Sweden)

ARCUM (Sweden)

Waldemar von Frenckells stiftelse (Finland)

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL (Switzerland)


Collaborators

Gesche Blume-Werry, University of Greifswald, Germany

Konstantin Gavazov, WSL, site Lausanne, WSL, Switzerland

Eveline Krab, SLU Uppsala, Sweden

Signe Lett, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Sylvain Monteux, Umeå University

Emily Pickering Pedersen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Maria Vaisänen, Oulu University, University of Lappland, Finland

 

 

Fingerprints of change: Abisko plants and phenology

Nuoja taken from the Abisko Scientific Research Station. Top: taken on 21 February 1925 by Carl G. Alm; Bottom: taken on 21 February 2017 by Oliver Wright

Nuoja taken from the Abisko Scientific Research Station. Top: taken on 21 February 1925 by Carl G. Alm; Bottom: taken on 21 February 2017 by Oliver Wright

Project Description

A major challenge for our time is to understand and predict effects of climate and environmental change on ecosystems and the services they provide to humanity. A larger and possibly more important challenge is to establish the significance of these processes to motivate citizens to change behaviours and to support policy and decision makers in developing adaptation, mitigation and management solutions. One recognized way to find solutions to this challenge is to engage the public directly in our science through ‘citizen science’.

Citizen science transcends regular communication initiatives. In citizen science, participants are actively engaged in the research process that the scientists communicate. This engagement by citizens in the scientific process leads to a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of climate and environmental change beyond what they would gain via the typical diffusion of scientific knowledge. In this project, we collaborate with the naturum Abisko to engage citizens and visitors of the Swedish mountains to become ‘citizen scientists’.

Our citizen science project focuses on the much beloved signs of seasonal change – the emergence of leaves in the spring, start of flowering, when berries are ripe for picking, and autumn leaf colours. Researchers refer to these seasonal changes as plant phenology or the study of nature’s “calendar”. Thanks to the strong links between plants, weather and climate, phenology represents one of the most common biological indicators of climate change showing trends, with earlier spring flowering and longer growing season. These indicators allow researchers to analyse regional differences in the effects of climate change.

Pedicularis hirsuta

Pedicularis hirsuta

However, collecting phenology data on a sufficient geographic scale and over many years is a fundamental obstacle. Today, historical and volunteer data in the form of citizen science have become crucial sources for scientists in the 21st century, including plant phenology data. We have established such a citizen scientist opportunity for the thousands of annual visitors to the Abisko and the Sweidsh mountains.

The naturum Abisko provides a variety of visitor and education programs, including botanical tours. Here we collaborate with them to integrate phenology monitoring into their botanical tours using the citizen science app iNaturalist and Fjällkalendern. These efforts meets our two objectives, of actively engaging citizens to observe the indicators of climate and environmental change that they might otherwise fail to notice, while gathering phenology data for fundamental research.

Get engaged - Learn about plants in Abisko with our flowering lists.

2019 Plant Species Flowering Lists


Background

Our project is inspired by the works of a few key botanists who helped put Abisko on the map, Thore C. E. Fries, G. E. Du Rietz, and Gustav Sandberg. They were all botanists at the Abisko Scientific Research Station. Beginning in 1917 we have extensive records of both the distribution and phenology of the plants in this region from repeated surveys, inventories and research projects.

The research station was established in Abisko in 1913 and immediately began collecting a globally unique long-term weather (climate) series for the Arctic. In 1913 the mean annual temperature in Abisko was below 0 C, today it is above 0 C. This means that at the beginning of the temperature record Abisko had an "arctic" climate and today it has a "boreal" climate.

Thore C E Fries

Thore C E Fries

Temp anomaly Abisko.jpg

Further, global warming as largely impacted this region during the autumn, winter and spring. Today the growing season is about four weeks longer than when the temperature records began (1913).

Growing Season.jpg

Our project focuses on understanding how plants have responded to this century of change. We have excellent distribution and phenology data for almost 200 species of plants beginning in 1917.

So how do plants respond to a changing climate? We have four predictions:

  1. plants can change their distribution, typically by moving north or higher up in the mountains if it gets warmer and the reverse if it gets cooler.

  2. plants can change the timing or duration of their phenology, that is when leaves, flowers, fruit, seeds, or leaf colour change (autumn), occurs.

  3. they can do both.

  4. they can persist without successfully reproducing or competing with the eventual outcome of local extinction.


Methods

Our project relies on a citizen science app created for both Android and iOS smart phones called 'iNaturalist'. We have created a specific project where we have identified 40 species of plants that we expect most amateur botanists familiar with the flora of the Swedish mountains can identify. Further these 40 species are found quite broadly from the north to the south of the Swedish mountains.

For people who do not have the taxonomic skills to identify common plants, but can take pictures with their smart phone they can also participate. All observations must contain one or more photos that allow our network of plant experts accurately identify the species. In addition, project staff annotate the phenological state of each observation, typically leaf development, flowering, fruiting and senescence.

Target Species List

Achillea millefolium
Andromeda polifolia
Antennaria alpina
Arctous alpina
Avenella flexuosa
Bartsia alpina
Betula nana ssp. nana
Betula pubescens ssp. pubescens
Bistorta vivipara
Cassiope tetragona
Chamaenerion angustifolium
Dryas octopetala
Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum
Geranium sylvaticum
Geum rivale
Gnaphalium norvegicum
Myosotis decumbens
Phyllodoce caerulea
Pinguicula alpina
Pinguicula vulgaris

Potentilla crantzii
Ranunculus nivalis
Rhododendron lapponicum
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Salix herbacea
Salix reticulata
Saussurea alpina
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Silene acaulis
Silene dioica
Solidago virgaurea ssp. alpestris
Thalictrum alpinum
Tofieldia pusilla
Trientalis europaea
Trollius europaeus
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium uliginosum ssp. uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-ideae
Viola biflora

Phyllodoce caerulea

Phyllodoce caerulea

We have created photographic guides to our 40 target species in English, Swedish, and German.


Learn more about our citizen science Project at

 

Project Partners

naturum Abisko
STF Abisko Mountain Station
Abisko Scientific Research Station
Naturens kalender (The Swedish National Phenology Network)

Funders

Formas
Gunnar and Ruth Björkman's fund for botanical research in Norrland

Climate change induced regime shifts in Northern lake ecosystems

Sunset over lake Törnetrask (as seen from the Abisko Scientific Research Station)

Sunset over lake Törnetrask (as seen from the Abisko Scientific Research Station)

Climate change induced regime shifts in Northern lake ecosystems

Project Summary

A present major scientific challenge is to understand and predict effects of climate change on lake ecosystems and the services they deliver. Globally, lakes are concentrated at northern latitudes where the magnitude of climate change is expected to be strongest. Recent advances in lake research suggest that responses of Northern lakes to global warming are fundamentally different from the expectations based on conventional knowledge. This project brings together new tools and concepts in biogeochemistry and ecology, with the aims of understanding and predicting the effects of climate change on the delivery of two major ecosystem services, fish production and the net greenhouse gas balance of Northern lakes.

Specific objectives include:

  1. Assessment of long vs. short term effects of climate change;

  2. Assessment of nonlinear dynamics and regime shifts; and,

  3. Projection of responses to future climate conditions.

The project’s core is made up of a multi-scale (pond to whole-lake) experimental test of ecosystem responses to increases in temperature and precipitation/runoff. Further, we will use aDNA techniques to address past regime shifts and ecosystem resilience to climate change from paleolimnological sediment records. Finally, the project will develop process-based models to be used in the projection of future conditions in lakes at the whole ecosystem scale.

Project Dates: 2017-2021

Funding Organizations

Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Collaborators

David Bastviken, Linköping University
Ann-Kristin Bergström, Umeå University
Christian Bigler, Umeå University
Richard Bindler, Umeå University
Åke Brännström, Umeå University
Pär Byström, Umeå University
Sebastian Diehl, Umeå University
Isabelle Domaizon, French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Göran Englund, Umeå University
Cristian Gudasz, Umeå University
Dag Hessen, Oslo University, Norway
Jonatan Klaminder, Umeå University
Sally MacIntyre, University of California Santa Barbara, USA
Frank Peeters, University of Konstanz, Germany
André de Roos, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Martin Rosvall, Umeå University
David Seekell, Umeå University
Ryan Sponseller, Umeå University
Xiau-Ru Wang, Umeå University
Marcus Klaus, Umeå University

Monitoring and management of Arctic lakes in a changing climate

Jan Karlson monitoring Arctic lakes

Monitoring and management of Arctic lakes in a changing climate

Project Summary

There is a lack of scientific based monitoring and management strategies of Arctic lakes where climate change effects are expected to be especially pronounced. The purpose of this study is to improve knowledge and monitoring of climate impacts on Arctic lakes. Specific aims include to quantify and provide threshold variables for climate change induced regime shifts in fish resource use and production, and to develop tools and guidelines to be used in monitoring programs. By experimental and comparative studies across climate gradients we test predictions of rapid changes in fish production and resource use with climate change, and by developing new analytical and statistical tools we test predictions that changes in lake function following climate change could be rapidly detected using automatized and cost efficient methods suitable for use in monitoring. Based on the results we will develop methods and guidelines together with stakeholders for use in monitoring of Arctic lake ecosystems. The outcome of the project will be of fundamental importance for society as this will provide knowledge and tools for sustainable management of a unique and attractable resource sensitive to environmental perturbations. The project is financed by FORMAS and carried out in collaboration with the county boards in Northern Sweden.

Project Dates: 2016 to 2018

Funding Organization

FORMAS (2015-723)

Collaborators

Jan Karlsson, Umeå University
Jens Andersson, Jämtland County Administrative Board
Ann-Kirstin Bergström, Umeå University
Pär Byström, Umeå University
Sally MacIntyre, University of California Santa Barbara, USA
David Seekell, Umeå University

Climate impact on sources and sinks of greenhouse gases in high-latitude lakes

Törnetrask in the Autumn (as viewed from the Abisko Scientific Research Station)

Törnetrask in the Autumn (as viewed from the Abisko Scientific Research Station)

Climate impact on sources and sinks of greenhouse gases in high-latitude lakes

Project Summary

Arctic and subarctic lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting greenhouse gases as carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. The relative magnitude of these different pathways has large implications for their role in the C cycle, i.e. to what extent they act as C sources or sinks. Still, the knowledge of C cycling in lakes is in many important aspects incomplete, preventing accurate quantification and predictions of their C source-sink function and response to climate change. The aim of the project is to assess climate impacts on C emission and burial in arctic–subarctic lakes. We will specifically investigate direct impacts by temperature and precipitation, and indirect impacts via changes in terrestrial surroundings, and how these various drivers influence the C source-sink function of lakes depending on the rate and magnitude of change. An important part is to assess the various sources and pathways underpinning emission and burial in lakes. The core of the project is made up of (i) comparative studies of lakes across gradients in temperature and precipitation and (ii) large-scale experimental test of responses in C emission and burial to increases in temperature and precipitation/runoff.

Project Dates: 2017-2020

Funding Organization

The Swedish Research Council (VR)

Collaborators

Jan Karlsson, Umeå University
David Bastviken, Linköpings University
Blaize Denfeld, Umeå University (Post Doctoral Researcher)
Cristian Gudasz, Umeå University
Sally MacIntyre, University of California Santa Barbara, USA
Oleg S. Pokrovsky, University Toulouse, France
Chris Soulsby, University of Aberdeen, UK
Bror Holmgren, Umeå University (PhD Student)

 

Climate impact on the carbon emission and export from Siberian inland waters

Arctic Lake Jan Karlsson.jpg

Climate impact on the carbon emission and export from Siberian inland waters

Project Summary

Siberia contains vast carbon (C) stocks potentially vulnerable to mobilization following permafrost thawing, and inland waters draining these regions are largely understudied. Thus, research on inland waters of Siberia is of particular importance for understanding climate change. This interdisciplinary project link expertise in aquatic biogeochemistry, hydrology and permafrost dynamics with the aim to improve the knowledge of the role of high latitude inland waters in emitting C to atmosphere and in exporting C to downstream coastal regions and how this varies between different climate regimes. We will carry out a comparative study of lake-stream networks across a climate gradient in western Siberia covering a large range of permafrost conditions. We will quantify to what extent terrestrial C export is evaded vs. exported downstream in the river networks along the gradient, and how these fluxes are related to differences in hydrological dynamics. This is a JPI Climate collaborative research project on Russian Arctic and Boreal systems (www.jpi-climate.eu/projects).

Project Dates: 2014-2017

Funding Organizations

The Swedish Research Council (VR)
The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC, UK)

Collaborators

Sergey Kirpotin, Tomsk University, Russia
Hjalmar Laudon, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå
Oleg Pokrovsky, University Toulouse, France
Doerthe Tetzlaff, University of Aberdeen, UK
Chris Soulsby, University of Aberdeen, UK
Pertti Ala-Aho, University of Aberdeen, UK (Post doc)
Svetlana Serikova, Umeå University (PhD student)

A cross-system analysis of ecological change in Kangerlussuaq (SW Greenland) and Torneträsk (Northern Sweden)

A cross-system analysis of ecological change in Kangerlussuaq (SW Greenland) and Torneträsk (Northern Sweden)

Project Summary

One of the major constraints on critically evaluating the causes of ecological change in sensitive arctic ecosystems is the lack of long-term monitoring. The area around Torneträsk in Northern Sweden and Kangerlussuaq in south-west Greenland are two of the more extensively studied arctic lake districts. As well as the benefits associated with long-term monitoring and having contrasting climates (low versus sub-arctic; precipitation), the two areas also differ in some key characteristics, most notably, surface water hydrology, in-lake DOC concentration and characteristics, terrestrial vegetation. However, as well as these climate and ecological differences, both areas have had the benefits of palaeolimnological studies, field experiments and integrated lake-catchment studies. In this project we will synthesize the available data from these areas using novel statistical approaches to understand the key drivers of ecological changes at a range of timescales.

Collaborators

Jan Karlsson, Umeå University
Jonatan Klaminder, Umeå University
Bror Holmgren (PhD student), Umeå University

 

Taking the pulse of Swedish rivers: using metabolism to monitor ecosystem responses to environmental change

Taking the pulse of Swedish rivers: using metabolism to monitor ecosystem responses to environmental change

Project Summary

Streams and rivers carry out multiple ecosystem services that respond to and integrate natural and anthropogenic perturbations across landscapes. In northern regions, a critical aspect of this ‘integration’ involves the regulation of carbon (C) transfer from land to the atmosphere and sea. In this context, the degree to which streams and rivers transform terrestrial organic carbon (OC) and act as sources of CO2 to the atmosphere is subject to much current debate. National monitoring programs have the potential to shed light on this issue, yet these efforts rarely assess aquatic ecosystem processes. As a solution, we propose adding high frequency measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) to current monitoring programs, which allow for the calculation of fundamental metabolic rates at daily time scales. Such measures reveal the ‘pulse’ of biological activity in running waters with the temporal resolution needed to capture changes in the degradation of terrestrial OC and CO2 production and fixation in response to diverse environmental changes. The goals of this research are to 1) determine how the rates and patterns of metabolism in Swedish rivers are shaped by regional climatic gradients and anthropogenic stressors, 2) Quantify the extent to which streams and rivers in arctic, boreal, and hemi-boreal zones degrade terrestrial OC, and contribute to CO2 evasion, and 3) Advance a simple and cost efficient method to assess metabolism that will complement current monitoring programs in Sweden by adding functional metrics

Funding Organization

Formas

Collaborators

Jan Karlsson, Umeå University
Erin Hotchkiss, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Hjalmar Laudon, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå

Impact of permafrost thawing on aquatic ecosystems: quantification of chemical compounds inputs

Impact of permafrost thawing on aquatic ecosystems: quantification of chemical compounds inputs

Project Summary

Over half the below-ground terrestrial organic carbon (C) pool resides in permafrost soils that are currently thawing because of recent climate change. As a result, vast amounts of terrestrial carbon (C) are mobilized, having the potential to accelerate global warming. The enhanced transport of other elements (e.g. nutrients and pollutants) with thawing may also cause dramatic biogeochemical impacts such as eutrophication or high-latitude pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Despite the dramatic ecological effects of thawing permafrost, how this process occurs and the strength of the export of biochemical compounds to surface waters still represents one of the biggest uncertainties in our climate impact models. My project will fill this gap by providing the first quantification of both spatial and temporal variations in permafrost groundwater discharge (PGD) and its importance for both the C cycle and the quality of surface waters. The estimation of these fluxes will be assessed by applying a novel technique based on using radium (Ra) isotopes and radon (222Rn) as tracers of groundwater inputs.

Collaborators

Jan Karlsson, Umeå University
Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Valentí Rodellas i Vila, Aix-Marseille Université, France

 

Snow bunting migration and spring stop-over ecology in Abisko

Snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis or snösparv) have a circumpolar distribution, breeding mostly at Arctic latitudes or further south on alpine areas. Each year they migrate to lower latitudes to spend the winter, usually south of the snow line, though in human settlements they may stay further north where food is available. During winter, the Swedish breeding population is supplemented by snow bunting migrating from north Norway, Finland, Russia, Svalbard, and Greenland. The population of snow bunting breeding in Sweden has declined by 10-40% over the last 30 years, but is considered to have stabilised the last several years so is not currently considered threatened (Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015, ArtDatabanken SLU). As the species breed at polar latitudes and alpine areas, and that they winter relatively far north, they are in areas experiencing some of the most rapid rates of climate change worldwide, with periods of snowcover reducing and timing of snowmelt becoming earlier, while temperature is rising (i..e approximately 1.5° C in the last 30 years in the Arctic). In this project we plan to both combine the collection of field data on migrating birds at a stopover site and breeding birds in northern Sweden (Abisko) with analysis of ring recovery data across Europe.

Collaborators

Tom Evans, CAnMOve, Lund University

Funders

Gustaf och Hanna Winblads

All photos of snow buntings taken and copyright of Oliver Wright.