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I am also interested in resource flows between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, in both directions. Even if ecosystems often are defined as closed systems, there are continuous movements of nutrients and organisms between different ecosystems. These movements are affected by both changed environmental conditions and by human activities, with consequences for, especially, consumers in receiving ecosystems. A relatively new, exciting area within this field is how the quality of resource flows is modified in response to environmental change and how this alters the importance of resource flows in recipient systems. Finally, aquatic insects, which live a majority of their lives in water to later emerge and fly up onto land, can potentially transfer environmental pollution to consumers on land. This is investigated with focus on lead, zinc, and per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances.